Glass Corrosion: Weathering

Group of archaeological bottles with varied weathering.

We tend to think of glass as a very stable material that doesn’t corrode, but that isn’t always true. Glass can and does corrode. The chemical that is most harmful to glass is something we consider fairly harmless, namely water. Water leaches out the alkali components (sodium and potassium) from the glass causing microscopic damage. This process generally takes time, so washing your glasses in water is safe. The composition of the glass is also a contributing factor. Some glasses have a much more stable composition than others.

Piece of archaeological window glass with severe weathering seen under a microscope. The red arrows point to areas where the glass surface has collapsed into itself.

The iridescence and discoloration seen on many archaeological glasses is a form of glass corrosion known as weathering.

During burial, moisture in the ground leaches out the alkali components from the glass, leaving behind distinct silica-rich layers alternating with layers of air. These layers are usually extremely thin, but numerous. They interfere with the direct transmission of light through the glass which causes the iridescence. The layers may be uniform and compact, or flaky, fragile, and discontinuous.

The discoloration of the glass is caused by the migration or alteration of coloring ions or other trace elements. The ions can be leached out of the glass or be taken up from the environment. For example, iron and manganese turn black, while contact with copper corrosion can cause green staining. Certain ions, most notably manganese and copper, may change color through oxidation.

Detail of weathered glass surface.

The burial conditions and the composition of the glass both contribute to the extent and appearance of the weathering which can vary extensively even within a single piece of glass. Glass buried in dry environments will have little to no corrosion, while glass in moist burial environment will generally weather extensively. The acidity of the burial also influences the extent of corrosion. Glass is fairly resistant to acids and even highly acid (low pH) environments will do little damage to the glass unless fluoride or phosphate ions are present. Alkali (high pH) environments are much more damaging to glass because the silica network is attacked and broken down.

55.1.84 This first- or second-century glass statuette of Venus has very thick weathering layers which have been lost in some areas.

The thickness of the weathering can vary greatly depending on the chemical stability of the glass and the aggressiveness of the burial conditions. In extreme cases corrosion products may have completely replaced the original glass. Underneath the weathering the so-called glass core retains the original composition and color of the glass.

One may be tempted to remove the weathering to reveal the original color, and that was certainly done in the past. However, unlike corrosion on metals, glass corrodes from the outside inward and the weathering preserves the original surface. Any details of the surface such as tool or usage marks or even fine decoration will be lost if the weathering is removed. The glass underneath the weathering is usually unevenly preserved and may be pitted or appear etched. The original smooth surface of the statuette of Venus in the image to the left is perserved in the intact weathering, but the core glass exposed where the weathering has been lost is severely pitted.

Weathering is a type of corrosion found on archaeological glass, but historical, modern, and contemporary glasses are affected by another type of deterioration known as atmospheric corrosion, crizzling, weeping, or glass disease. I’ll save my discussion on that for another time.

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Astrid van Giffen is the Museum's associate conservator. In 2007, she completed the conservation training program of the Netherlands Institute for Cultural Heritage (ICN) in Amsterdam, with a specialization in glass and ceramics. Her training included internships at the Walters Art Museum in Baltimore, Md, and The Corning Museum of Glass in Corning. Since completing the ICN program, she has worked as a private conservator in Oregon and was the Samuel H. Kress Fellow in Objects Conservation at the Straus Center for Conservation and Technical Studies of the Harvard Art Museum (2008-2009). She also holds a BA (2001) in Classical Studies from Willamette University.

8 comments » Write a comment

  1. Couple of things:

    1. About corrosion of glass vs. metals, I don’t think you meant to imply that metals corrode from the inside and proceeds outwards. I believe what you meant to say is that corrosion in most metals starts on the outside, but destroys the surface as the corrosion proceeds inward?

    2. What caused the weathering on the bust of Amenhoptep II in the Ancient Glass primary case at CMoG? Was it really water? Was it buried in a wet location? My impression was that it was buried for centuries in his tomb in the arid deserts of Egypt. Hardly a wet environment?

    Thanks in advance for your response.


    • Hi John,

      When metal corrodes it starts on the surface and the corrosion products mainly build up on top of the surface. So the corrosion products can often be removed to reveal the original surface. The metal itself can also be altered and the surface can be destroyed. But the main difference with glass is the build up of corrosion products on top of the surface.
      With glass, no corrosion products build on the surface. Instead the glass is altered (and becomes the silica-rich corrosion product) from the outside in. This means that is if the corrosion is removed the original surface is lost.

      As for the bust of Amenhotep II, this is an unprovenanced object. So we do not know its burial history. But it has a very thick corrosion layer of a type that indicates prolonged exposure to wet and dry cycles. Water, some times just in the form of moisture in the air, is the primary factor in all glass corrosion. The other factor is the composition of the glass itself. There are some examples of very stable glasses found in tomb in dry environments, but most buried glass will show some signs of deterioration.

      I hope that answers your questions. If you have any more, please don’t hesitate to ask.

      Astrid van Giffen, Assistant Conservator

  2. Astrid,

    Thank you for your help. These links will give me a chance to see genuine pieces. The more you see the more you understand. Glad know I was wrong…better that than stay wrong.


  3. Hi Astrid,

    How long do you think it takes for glass to change color when it has been put in the ground?



  4. What happens when clear glass that is buried takes on a pink and violet hue when held to light?

    • Hello – This is from Astrid van Giffen, one of our conservators and the author of the blog post: “Clear glass often has manganese as a decolorant. The manganese can change oxidation state which results in a pink or purple color. This doesn’t usually happen during burial though, exposure to sunlight is usually what causes it. It’s called solarization.” If you want to read more, we have an article on solarization:

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